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Missouri has an interesting problem, in that all the more important cities are on the border. The Robertson Aircraft Corporation, Inc. Louis, is typical of the six in business in the state, this being an increase of hve within a year. There was not even a forced landing. At their base, the company carried additional passengers and conducted a training school. Transportation and special service for the oil men and ranchers were supplied by the Southwest Airplane Company of Tulsa, Okla- homa.
Walter T. Vamey of San Francisco is the outstanding figure in commercial aviation in Northern California. His base shelters fif- teen machines. His operations extend down the coastal valleys to Los Angeles and over the Siskiyous to Portland. Aekial Photography Aerial photography has played such an important part in this year's commercial aeronautical activities that it should be classed along with passenger and freight carrying as one of the important outlets for the use of airplanes.
Two New York concerns have specialized exclusively in aerial photography and have leased their planes from local aviation companies. The uses to which aerial photographs have already been put are sufficient to indicate the breadth of the market.
Factory photo- graphs make up the largest single class of customers. Many of the more prominent advertising agencies have incorporated aerial illustrations in their clients' plans for the com- ing year. The Consolidated Gas Company of New York used effectively a series of aerial photographs to prove before a state rate com- mission the necessity for buying additional real estate in order to provide sufficient working and storage space.
Real estate brokers handling large industrial properties are beginning to realize the value of this new type of photography and will, within tiie next two or three years, be very profitable outlets for this branch of aero- nautics. Other fields are rapidly opening up for the use of these views. The enterprising salesman will discover new outlets weekly. All kinds of maps can be made economically and accurately by aerial photographic methods.
These aerial photographic maps pre- sent a wealth of detail which is invaluable to anyone making a close study of any locality. The Fairchild Aerial Camera Corpora- tion has made maps varying in scale from feet to the inch for large area maps to the feet to the inch maps made for fire insurance purposes. One of the notable achievements of the year was the mapping of New York City in 69 minutes. Such detail was obtained that automobiles can be counted.
Property lines were put on this map and the names of the property owners. Blown down areas and burned over areas are accurately measured. Four World's Records in The increasing public interest in commercial aviation was evident in tfie demand for flying meets. Approximately a score of these were held in various parts of the country - notably New York, Clearwater, Fla.
On Aug. Macready, U. And Bnally, on Dec. L-6 Larsen monoplaneremained aloft at Roosevelt Field, L. A Rahjioad Man's Views During certain definite and very encouraging expressions regarding the practical application of aircraft to transportation were made by individuals in responsible positions.
Thousands have flown out of curiosity ; many are now flying for pleasure ; some are flying out of preference and for purely business reasons. Will the time come - and how soon - when families will book passage over con- tinents and seas as simply as they now travel by train and steamer? Felton, the railway executive referred to a few pages back, in an article in Collier's Weekly, Nov. I know how wonder- fully useful they were.
They were just as much a part of the army u the cannon and the rifles and the trench helmets. This was clearly brought out in an article in the Aug.
Henderson, in which it was stated : "Speed increases the cost of hauling in a very striking manner, principally as the train load must be greatly reduced if we wish to haul at high speeds.
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Passenger traffic is even more expensive. It has been demonstrated that a speed of about 15 miles per hour is the most economical for ordinary freight trains. Enter the airplane, with ample capacity tor traffic passenger and freight requiring extra fast service, with an average economical speed of from 90 to miles an hour! Felton, with full knowledge of the railroad's needs and the capabilities of other means of transport, such as aircraft and the motor truck, comments thus : "But the real point of interest to me is not that airplanes can safely carry passengers or that motor trucks can handle short hauls cheaper than can the railways, but the influence that airplane travel is going to have upon business and social development and the change that the motor truck will make in transportation.
Those who are old enough will remember that when the long-distance telephone came into general use it was thought that it would cut down fast passenger travel. For a time it did, but then it stimulated fast travel and, as much as anything, forced on the fast trains. The telephone developed business - the late George W. Perkins always held that it was the telephone and telegraph that made possible the big corpora- tions. What great change in business will air travel effect in America?
What will it do for Europe? The fine roadbeds which we have are not necessary for freight trains. Again, our roads lose money on the short hauls; they make their money on long hauls of alow-moving freight Will the airplane and the motor truck serve to help solve the railway problem of the future by cutting out the fast passenger trains, the short-haul freight trains and the expensive passenger terminals? The pioneers in aircraft would seem justified in the conviction that not only will high-speed traffic flow to aerial operators, but that the great land and sea carriers will facilitate its transfer.
Robert E. Cowie, vice-president, has studied the advan- tages of aircraft To the Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce he has stated : "The American Railway Express Company is very deeply interested in the subject of aerial traDsportation and is desirous of considering the question of a contract for the handling of express matter with any responsible aerial transportation company whenever such a company b launched and has demon- strated its ability to furnish a reliable service, provided, of course, that it is possible to arrive at a mutually satisfactory agreement with respect to the compensation paid for such a service.
The mails always have gone and always will go by the fastest available means. It is not the conception of the mail service to choose the cheapest but the quickest delivery. Credit and the Release of Credit Finally, we have to consider a most dominant element in modem business, in the successful functioning of which aircraft are about to take a peculiarly important part.
This is banking. The financial powers of the nation are notably unwilling to take cognizance of, much less interest themselves in, new commercial activities until such activities have demonstrated security and utility. This was true in the early days of the automotive industry; it has been true, until recently, of aircraft. The modem banker believes in conserving time.
It is the genius of his business. Anything from a labor-saving device for his counting room to scientific research affecting investments, present or future, enlists his interest.
And it has been the good fortune of aircraft to make both a practical and personal appeal. He must go by the fastest. And as the times change, these means of travel, too, must improve.
Hence, as the first few commercial aerial transport hnes make their appearance here and abroad, there are signs that these executives recognize what is offered and what it means. Thus W. Irving Bullard, vice-president of the Merchants National Bank of Boston, made literally a "Hying" trip through Europe, by utilizing aircraft for a thousand miles or more on stages of hts itinerary which, by train or motor, would have required the expenditure of time almost beyond his command.
Thus also we find a party of New York bankers and capitalists, including Charles E. Confidence is a matter of acquaintance. Gaston, to investigate the commercial aviation situation.
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Gaston's observations were published in the bank organ Commerce Monthly, for November, In the seven years since that time, however, development has been so rapid that commercial air transportation is today a matter of general interest and substantial importance. In answer to an inquiry, a banker said: "As banking deals almost entirely widi interest payments in one form or another and as interest payments depend necessarily upon the time element, it is obvious that time is an extremely important factor.
Tjiking New York as typical, prior to the creation of the Federal Reserve machinery it required four days for clearances between Chicago, Minneapolis and Jacksonville, whereas it now takes but two ; it required six days to New Orleans, Kansas City and Dallas, and now but three; it required eight days to Denver, Spokane and Seattle, and now but four ; it required ten days to San Francisco and Los Angeles, and now requires but five.
The problem now is to make further saving, to tolerate less waste of credit and achieve more speed in clearance. The existing system is predicated upon the fastest surface transportation.
It is apparent that there can be no great change until the means of conveyance are improved. Here enters the aircraft operator. Airplanes have actually spanned the continent in thirty-three hours, and with night flying can do It in less.
They can today cut down one-half to two-thirds the fastest rail schedules in the country - especially between the great banking centers. When this was pointed out to a banker, he ex- claimed, "Why, aircraft will repeat what the Federal Reserve accom- plished.
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MuL FluU- Field Oaeed. Cortte NorthHt Air- pUo. Repdr CCItp. W, ISO h. IS 2jm IDBfa. An- BatdoD Avhtin Co. Watkm Hill AirphiH Co. Tenaiiuli Put. T J-N. ICamd toxs, H. COX I Caa. OXS 1 S. OX 1 Jj ,-I-H. LeRhone engines; accommodating four pas- sengers and pilot. Beloit,- - Sperry "Sport itcssengcr," 60 h. Lawrance engine. Mjm sojoaa D. MO 10 SOD UmiB. KOhpt Hmrim Aon Ulf. Labftao AvfUioD Co. Lofin Avbtloo [ca Abend Corp. Lowtll Afamft Corp. McCfftw AvtMloo Co.
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TUM ZO. JO lOmln. SidncT E. Putir Ftan Abo CiHj. KatmUt Airpluw Co. FctcrtOD Alr- cnfl Co. Portluid, Oie. Gnad Xapidi, Uicli. WhiU Bcu. Loim uro; 2 hancan. OXS 1 L. Hodd A. OXJ 1J. OXS 1 P. C-l 2 N. OXS L. C2j6 I Sop. S sa, Dum. M, intylUtl. S- ufcuw, Wichita Filli, WfXXt 10,00 N. JO mill. SoatbmM Aiiptue Co. SbeUoB, m. HunllnctoD Put, Cii. Hmiton, Tex. SL Peunbui.
Cokindo SpriDfi, Colo. U2 Pod St. OXS 1 SJ. OX5 I SJ. Span LaiT. I Can. L,-6 2L. OXi 3l,N. I C,F. Boat 1 AJ9-A. SuiDitgo,Su Fnutcbca, Fiona, etc. Kuua JO 25 nil. Si mSa. SflOO ud StrntfCtrntmr AiAm 4ir? WoodftGdlUiD C. Wrifhluuo Tdu. UmoflMM, C Cltr. Unc UtBd, N. SDO Main. P-: SiddeUr PuiM-! The correction of these deficiencies and the consequent opportunity for the rapid growth of aerial transport depend upon Federal regulation and reasonable control through an Aerial Code.
The writer in Commerce Monthly, referred to in the preceding chapter, observed : "Wise regulation may be expecteil to give a certain stability to the air transportation industry essential to any industry which must appeal for credit and for investment capital.
Until this is attained air transportation cannot be said to be on a business basis. From whatever point of view the subject is approached, the conclusion is inescapable that the enactment of an air law is the first essential step toward the development of commercial aviation in the United States. The establishment of common terminals for the encouragement of all aviation, and for the national security in time of need, is a public responsibility, which, if neglected now, will invite difficulties within a few years similar to those in which the waterways and the railways now find themselves.
At the close ofoperating reports showed the existence of terminals of all classes, of which 5 were in Canada, and 3 others devoted to airship experiment, leaving a net of in the United States. Of this number, probably 20 could be classified as seaplane bases.
At the close ofthe operating reports showed a total of air terminals, both land and water, within the United States. All were for heavier-than-air-craft. Sixteen of the were publicly owned or controlled. Deprive the rail and ocean carriers of depots and docks, and operation must cease. Withhold terminals from the American air- craft industry, and aerial transport can achieve neither size nor reliability.
The won- der is that there has been so much paid flying from so few fields. The Airways Section of the U, S. Clair Strect. The Airways Section, relying on voluntary local reports, is taking a census of available sites see Appendixand is providing practical construction and flying advice to municipalities and to pri- vate enterprise.
Practically the first inquiry Mr, Hoover made, after listening to a statement of the general situation, was whether the most urgent need for regulation was the protection of public life and property, and at his request, the Manufacturers Aircraft Association, and later the Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce, conducted a survey of hazard in unregulated flight, which is presented in full in this chapter.
The bill passed the Senate and at the time of publication was before the House Commit- tee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce. It provides for the regu- lation of aircraft engaged in interstate and foreign commerce and for the establishment of a Bureau of Civil Aeronautics in the Department of Commerce.
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Its enactment will give the assurance of legality which is necessary before investment capital can be attracted. It will make possible the systematic establishment of terminals and, perhaps most important of all, will remove the last vestige of fear from the mind of a public only too vividly impressed with the perils of uncontrolled flight.
Two courses were open - confidential data as to ideotification from the established companies making operating reports ; and press stories, covering the general field. In making their reports, these companies seemed careful to itemize all forced landings, crashes, etc Yet the number of accidents in which persons were killed or injured totals but Six Requisites fob Safe Flying "Experience has taught that, in safe flying, there are the following requisites: "i.
A machine sound, aerodynamically and structurally. A competent, conservative pilot and navigator. Nation-wide weather forecasts spedaliied and adapted to the need of flyers. Nation-wide chart of air routes. Of the six fatalities, three were due to stunting, two to gross carelessness on the field, and one to storm.
As the table shows, these mishaps were due to causes which could have been removed by Federal regulation or supervision, - had landing fields, air routes and weather reports been fully available; had the field help been more disciplined; had the pilots been more alert through consciousness of licensed responsibility and had there been strict inspection of aircraft, engines, accessories and supplies.
The Case of the Gypsy Flier It is estimated that, during the calendar yeart,aoo aircraft were engaged in civil flying in the United States and that these flew 6, miles and carried AO0 persons. These figures are approximate and include both the itinerant and fixed base flying. Many press reports may be inaccurate and unfair as to causes, but they afFord the only available index into the comparative safety of the total aerial activity, "Table No. Two of the occurred in January, t in February, 3 in March, 6 in April, 16 in May, 13 in June, 13 in July, a8 in August, 16 in September, 8 in October, 8 in November and i in December, progressing and diminishing as the flying season advanced and waned.
The 49 lives were lost in 33 accidents and injury to the 89 persons was caused in but 42 accidents. Forty-nine were at- tributed to the pilot, perhaps through carelessness, perhaps incompetence, per- haps had judgment combined with other factors.
There is no doubt that a good pilot can guide a poor machine to safety with greater chance of success than a poor pilot can operate a first-class craft. Therefore, at the very top of the list of Governmental needs we place the Federal examination and licensing of pilots. During the war rather more than 17, young men were trained to fly.
The knack of flying cannot be retained perpetually without practice, nor can it be maintained at a high degree of competency without regular examination on a common standard for all flying throughout the United States.
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The same u true of aerial navigators. Both pilot and navigator many times they are identical are of equal importance in safe- guarding the lives of travelers by air. Inadequate Landing Fields Twenty accidents are attributed in whole or in part to inadequate landing fields or to the total lack of terminal facilities. Here is a duty directly imposed upon the Federal Government.
During the war the Army and the Navy acquired many terminals, most of which have since been abandoned. As one was Naval and the other MiliUry, they cannot be bcluded in the civil table, though in their results they were as harmful to civil flying prospects as though they had occurred to private individuals. Either the seaplane had no business over that beach or the bathers had no business on it. In either event, the fatalities would have been prevented had proper authority existed.
According to the report of the Inspector General's investigators, the disaster was not due to defects in the machine or to in- competence on the part of the pilot, but to the terrific storm into which the ship flew and of which the pilot had not been warned.
The investigatort above referred to recommended that 'steps should be taken to install a system for interchange of weather conditions and weather forecast between flying fields maintained by the various services, including Army, Navy, Mail Service and Coast Guard Service. This service obviously, cannot be provided by the several States.
Inspection an Imperative Need "Equal in importance with learning the qualifications of pilot and navigator is inspection of aircraft and engines. Out of the accidents, z2 may be attributed to faults which proper inspection probably would have revealed- 4 concerning the plane, 9 the engine and 9 an accessory, gas or oil. This in- spection must be made at frequent intervals by Federal authority.
If the standard of control were left to the various states, the hope of correcting this unfortunate condition would seem remote. An investigator reported that the plane was not a factory-maintained product. It was the giving way of these spars that undoubtedly caused the wings to collapse. The plane had lain out of doors in the open field all winter and one windstorm had blown it the full length of the field - about yards - and turned it over end.
This spring it ha. It was never inspected by a com- petent person, so far as I was able to learn. I found that the owner of the flying field - who is also a flier- had himself refused to fly this machine when the young man who took it up on its fatal trip was induced to become the pilot. They check up on their products, but their control is of necessity limited to localities and to a comparatively brief period of time.
As flying increases, this method must become more hopeless and a stem responsibility is thus placed upon the Federal Govemnient to provide an adequate system of examination and inspection. In other words, stunt flying in unrestricted areas was rcsponuble for almost as many casualties as all other elements combined.
Now stunt flying is necessary to testing and essential to warfare. But the habit of stunting for thrill is dan- gerous, fatal in many instances, and always harmful to civil flying. A govern- mental system of control, limiting stunting to certain areas will meet this unfortunate menace to aeronautics.
In this connection, however, there is hope of general improvement. State Fairs and other amusements, since the war, have encouraged dare-devil flying as 'concessions. Collision in the Air "The danger of collision in the air is not great, providing levels of flight for aircraft under way are established and observed, and providing stunting is controlled.
The 2 collisions reported occurred during stunt per- formances. In the first, one man was killed, and in the second, 2 were killed and one hurt Crowds Surge on to Field "Eight accidents causing injury to 7 persons are reported through care- lessness on the field.
It is observed that at every flying demonstration, even at locally policed fields, the spectators ignore wamingi and must be forced to keep back.
This is illustrated by the long list of automobile race track casualties, where spectators get in the way. Only Federal rules rigidly enforced are able to meet this condition. Searching for the "Unknown" Cause "Finally, 8 accidents which caused death to 4 and injury to one are attributed to "unknown" causes.
The hope of preventing accidents depends on learning - then correcting - the cause of each. It is evident that Federal authority is required to obtain information in such cases. Flying Not Unsafe "From the foregoing it is seen that flying, even with the burden of un- necessary hazard imposed through the lack of an Aerial Code, is not unsafe.
And it is from this record rather than from the itinerant picture that the public should judge the safety of travel by air. These companies approximate the condition in equipment and personnel which will be general when the Federal Government recognizes its duty and responsibility. Improvements in safety and efficiency are being constantly introduced. These, if aided by regulation and stimulation by the Government, assure security in the air travel of the near future comparable with that of the accepted means of transportabon which we have today on rail, road and water.
Limitation of Armament, which was on invitation of the President of the 12, Feb. In designating type and tonnage of new construction permissible, the Conference approved the development of auxiliary units for aircraft. To the United States and Great Britain were allotted 5 aircraft carriers, with a total tonnage for each nation of ,; to Japan and France, 3 each, with 81, and 60, tonnage, respec- tively; and 2 to Italy, with a tonnage of 54, On Jan.
Higgins, representing the British Empire; Captain Albert Roper, representing France; Colonel Riccordo Moizo, representing Italy; and Captain Osami Nagano, Japan, had worked for many weeks assembling data through which to ascertain the influence whidi aircraft would have upon the future and to determine thereby what limitation, if any, should be imposed upon this new arm.
On the reading of this report see Appendixall the delega- tions, in turn, expressed the view that the experts were right in their belief that aircraft limitation was impossible at present.
Chairman Hughes exftf'essed disappointment that the Conference was unable to suggest practical limitations on the building of military aircraft, probably the most formidable weapon of the future.
The experts had well presented the difficulties. They were dealing with facilities needed in peaceful development. No han could be put on progress. The question. Secretary Hughes said, resolved itself, not into a limitation of armament, but into a limitation of civil progress, and therefore there seemed to be nothing to do but to accept the experts' report.
The report was then formally accepted. As none of the delegations wished to urge action along this line, Mr. Hughes proposed the following resolution, cover- ing aircraft in general : "The Committee is of the opinion that it is not a impose any effective limitations upon the numbers oi craft, either commercial or roilitarj.
The Conference on the Limitation of Armament, which was thus brought to a successful conclusion, was inspired by two universal desires : First, removal of some of the obvious provocations for war the fear of a rival nation's rising military power ; second, relief from the financial burden of competitive armament and diversion of this money into economic channels.
The problem was to attain both objectives, yet retain an adequate sense of security. The solution came through aircraft, which have demonstrated themselves to be both vehicles of peace and instruments of war, and it came about in this way.
Other bombs were placed upon the deck, and the effect of the explosions noted. Shortly thereafter. Little attention was paid at the time to either incident, and Captain W. AixcRAPT Versus Battleships Thereupon a discussion developed, which has been erroneously represented as a personal controversy, but which in reality was nothing but the concentrated expression of an economic question which had been pressing for consideration in our Congress and also in the parliaments of other nations.
The war was over but the debts remained. Appropriation demands upon tlie Treasury, inevitable during readjustment, were increasing, yet commerce and industry presented diminishing returns. The discussion was carried on principally in Congress. Inthe General Board reaffirmed the program, and the year following the Secretary of the Navy indorsed its views. The press of the country, sympathetic to anything which offered the hope for economy, and alive to the possibilities of a spectacular demonstration of the relative superiority of aircraft over surface ships, urged that the airmen be given an opportunity to put their beliefs to the test.
Accordingly, on Feb. This offer was accepted and representative flying officers of both services were assigned the task of working out the details. Personnel in both services from stations near and remote asked permission to participate, and when Mr. Daniels, to show his confidence in the abiHty of the capital ship to withstand assault from the air, offered to navigate the bombed craft himself.
The Stage Is Set Such was the spirit which animated the scene that appeared on the morning of June 21, when a magnificent gallery of capital ships from the Atlantic fleet, destroyers, mine sweepers and other units, assembled nearly a hundred miles off the Virginia Capes to witness the first experiment. It was truly a historic occasion. The Nava! The gathering in the ward room of the "Henderson" on the night of June 20 was tense and dramatic.
There was much conversation about many topics, but little about the only one that amounted to anything: "Was tomorrow to mark a turning point in the warfare of the future? The ex-German submarine U. But another officer said: "Tomorrow well see whether we sink or float. If the air did command the sea, the Navy would be the first to acknowledge it, and to the Navy that floats add the Navy that flies. The U. Twelve pound bombs were dropped - the entire cargo. All registered hits within the danger zone.
The flrst salvo of three bracketed the U. The next salvo of nine bombs literally smothered the craft. At least one of these fell amidships and broke its back. Possibly three bombs hit the submarine direct In seven minutes after the second salvo, and sixteen minutes after the first bomb was dropped, the U. Congressmen on board the "Hender- son," who had hitherto been stanch supporters of the capital ship to the possible exclusion of other types, saw in the sinking of the U.
Seakch fob the "Iowa" The next phase was not [vesented until June 29, when the old U. In this event, too, only Navy and Marine Corps craft participated. The scene was ninety miles north- east of Cape Henry. In i hour and 57 minutes after warning had been given of "enemy" approach, the airplanes and seaplanes had located the "Iowa," after having flown one hundred miles to sea from their base. The Navy did not want to injure the "Iowa," so only concrete or dummy bombs were used in the attack.
During the attack, the "Iowa" was navigated slowly by radio in a zigzag course. Whether it was the motion or whether it was the known fact that dummy bombs cannot be "aimed" because they hurtle over and over in their descent that accounted for the apparent failure, was debated, pro and con, according to the point of view being marine or aeronautical.
The press, to which competition is ever 3 delight, saw in the "Iowa" test a setback to the hopes of those advocates of aviation who sought com[Jete dominion. And truly it so seemed. But there were other incidents to come. Wak Tactics Simulated It IS not within the province of this Year Book to discuss the rules under which the bombing tests were conducted, but it is true that, not until July 13 when the G.
General Mitchell appeared in his own machine and personally directed his fliers. The primary attack was made at feet witfi eleven S. Nineteen minutes after the first of these heavy charges was dropped from a height of feet the destroyer sank. Direct hits could not be accurately counted, so rapidly were the missiles released.
The final plunge of the doomed ship occurred in two minutes. What could be done with the "Frankfurt," a light cruiser? The test, on July 18, was in two phases, at to feet altitude.
In the first, which lasted from a. Plans, indeed, were actually under way to sink the cruiser by gunfire, and to place time bombs on board to insure destruction. Thirty-five minutes later, after drop- ping eleven txnnbs, three of which broke her back, the "Frankfurt" sank. One of the three exploded in the water close to the hull and it was believed that tt was this explosion that did the worst damage, thus demonstrating a theory, hitherto rejected by many, but which, in the final test with the "Ostfriestand," was to be completely established.
Sinking the "Ostfkiesland" The last and most remarkable of the series was the assault on the "OstfriesUmd," a huge, powerful dreadnought, 22, tons displace- ment and one of the main ships in the German fleet at the Battle of Jutland.
Here was a floating fortress, with heavy steel walls built to withstand the mightiest gun projectiles. The first day, July 20, operations were confined to small bombs. Of the ten direct hits, nine bombs failed to explode. Some of the shots were spectacular, immense sheets of flame enveloping portions of the ship- but the fighting parts remained little harmed. In fact, then, as throughout the demon- stration, the tenor of the conversation among most of those aboard die "Henderson" was skeptical as to the ability of aircraft to justify all that had been claimed for them.
Shall Bombs Open Seams But the tale was abruptly and vividly ended the following day. At 6rst looo-pound bombs were used, five Army machines drop- ping one each. Dreadnought Goes Down in 2ij4 Minutes In the next phase, when pound bombs were employed at to feet, it was dear that General Mitchell did not seek direct hits. A blow on deck was spectacular and might be dangerous.
An explosion close to the hull, with the uncompressible mass of the ocean behind it, meant more. A fifth exploded, on deck, and another fell feet in advance.
Of the four close up, one detonated on the port side of the quarter-deck and another dose tn on the port side of the stem. The shocks were distinctly fdt on the "Henderson," more than three miles distant.
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Williams, Army Chief of Ordnance. Menoher, who at that time was Chief of the Air Service, said: "A cold material fact has been demon- strated. The fact is that the battleship can be sunk by the aerial bomb. That is now the great need. We must now get them and quickly. It carried the con- viction that the nation controlling the air commanded also the water beneath.
A Joint Board representing the Army and the Navy was appointed to review the results of the tests. The Board, on August 18, officially reported: "The aviation and ordnance experiments conducted with the ex-German vessels as targets have proved that it has become imperative as a matter of national defense to provide for the maximum possible development of aviation in both the Army and the Navy.
They have proved also the necessity for aircraft carriers of the maximum size and speed to supply our fleet with the offensive and defensive power which aircraft provide, within their radius of action, as an effective adjunct of the fleet. It is like- wise essential that effective anti-aircraft armament be developed. Other members who were not witnesses, but who were equally keen, obtained from the press enthusiastic reports and vivid pictures, especially of the sinking of the "Ostfriesland.
There was great unwillingness to spend money for armament under scrutiny as obsolescent, and the Naval bill in conse- quence was subjected to the severest criticism. Parallel with this, tfiere ran the discussion of world peace and reduction in the non- productive military and naval establishments of the larger powers.
Senator Borah, with more persistence than tact, kept calling for a naval holiday and insistently urged that some attempt be made to get the major nations to agree to a limitation of armament. Extracts from their remarks, as taken from the Congressional Record of Aug. The experiment off the Virginia coast demonstrated that which the best minds in the naval life of England have asserted for the last year and a half, that the battleship is practically obsolete. Yet the airplane development is just beginning.
It is just in its youth. Nay, more, it has not accomplished anything compared with what it will accomplish, according to those who are infonned, even within the next year. Yet we go forward building these great battleships at this enormous expense, knowing that inside of two years the airplane will have rendered this particular type of battleship absolutely worthless as a de- fensive proposition.
Leakn Lbsson and Save Milxions "Mr. He was thoroughly acquainted with tiie character of the construction, with the water-tight compartments, and all that sort of thing; and yet, as the Senator from Idaho has said, within fifteen or twenty minutes from the dropping of the first z,ooo-pound bomb the ship was sunk. President, without assuming to say that the battleship is absolutely obsolete and can never be made effective by any changes which may be made or any different construction which may be had, it does seem to me conclusively established that to go forward and build these battleships at this time until this testing proposition has been carried to its final conclusion, until we know what is needed, what kind of battle- ship will stand it, is a mere waste of money.
An admiral stated to me a few days ago that not only the experi- ment oS the Virginia coast demonstrated that the battleship as it is now being built is practically obsolete, but it demonstrated further that with sufficient airplane and submarine protection, this country was perfectiy safe from attadc from any other country. Of course Mr. I do not take that position. I do not wish that to be understood. What I say is that we are putting this vast amount of money into these ships without getting any corresponding Kcnrity and without getting any safety such as we are entitled to liave for that amount of money.
I do not think in the building of battle- ships we are giving our country any security or any safety at all, com- paratively speaking. President, the party which is now in power cannot aflford from any standpoint to permit any opportunity to go by to reduce expenses to the point where at least we shall not have to increase taxes; it will be unfortunate if taxes must be maintained even at the present rate.
The whole nutter was discussed a few weeks ago in this Chamber; every Senator's opinion ii made up; and if the resolution could be reported and passed and the Army curtailed as it proposes, it would be a vast saving in that particular. If there is any other way by which we can save, I do not know of it. We may cut out tome expenses here and there in a department, or we may dismiss a few employees and curtail here and there in a small way, but we cannot cut down expenses in such manner as the Secretary of the Treasury says we must in order to hold taxes even to the present statiu unless we do it upon these two lines.
Even when, on the 26th, the old ship went down with a mortal wound inflicted by one pound bomb, the public was little stirred. The "impossible" had already been accomplished, under severer handicaps, in the sinking of the "Ost- ffustand" and hence it was no longer impossible but commonplace.
Navy Establishes Aeronautics Buxeau The Navy in the meantime had steadily, if deliberately, moved toward recasting its structure to accommodate the new weapon from the air. During the war there had been a sort of bureau created by dqiartmental order for the handling of matters aeronautical, but this was dissipated shortly after the signing of the Armistice and aviation suffered badly in consequence.
When the aircraft-battleship discussion was starting, a new Director of Naval Aviation, in the person of Rear Admiral Moffett, was selected. General Mitchell had at his command personnel and matfriel, a recognized organization and, above all, he had the empathy of his chief.
Of Uiis Bureau, the Admiral has said : The creation of a Bureau of Aeronautici is our first move toward obtaining coatrol of the air, which is necessary if we are to hope success- fully to defend ourselves at sea. Without the aviation that it needs, or should have, our fleet is lost if it engages an enemy equal in other respects, and having also an overwhelming advantage in aviation. Without the aviation it should have, the millions invested in the fleet are thrown away, and irithont it the fleet is in constant danger.
Not an mstant should be lost in pushing to completion the aviation needs of the fleet; the fleet's very existence depends on aviation.
Without aircraft we might as well scrap our dreadnoughts. The sinking, one after the other, of the various types of modem warcraft was generally re- garded as not only a demonstration of magnificent discipline among his men and as vindication of the view that aircraft is the dominant arm of the future, but also as a distinct personal victory.
Mitchell had spoken many times with more thought for the truth than for harmony or for his own future and whenever a new idea appears to dispute supremacy with the old, a dash is inevitable. There was a clash, but the new idea and its chief exponent. General Mitchell, remain invulnerable through perfect justification.
Speaking of the bombing. General Patrick has said : "Few things which have ever been done have been the cause of more serious thought on the part of military men than the bombing tests, which were carried out inand of which the results were most remarkable. For the actual initiation and conducting of these tests I give all credit to General Mitchell, whose enthusiasm and whose knowledge of what could be accomplished were well borne out by the results obtained.
There was gathered together at Langley Field an Air Service organization which was given thorough training, the men in which worked heail and soul to prepare themselves to show just what could be done, and when the time came for them to act, they did not fail. It was demonstrated beyond a doubt that aircraft were capable of putting out of action, or even of destrojring, any surface ship which has yet been designed.
Of course, the aircraft were not opposed and it is reasonable to assume that the navies of the world, Uiymzoc by Google 58 AIRCRAFT YEAR BOOK aware of the threat to their existence, will bend their utmost efforts to finding some means of meeting this menace, but whatever may be done along this line, the development of military aircraft will likewise progress and it is a conservative statement that aircraft can make our coasts practically immune from attack, either by a naval force or by any expedition which would undertake to land an army anywhere along our extended coastline.
II, President Harding issued an invitation to the great powers to come to Washington and deliberate means for cutting down the bills for big guns and big ships.
The part that aircraft took in initiating this conference is definite. The potentialities of aircraft in war have destroyed faith in obsolescent methods of attack and defense, and by increasing the fear of war, have fostered the desire for peace. The personnel numbered nearly The principal airdrome and training center is at El Palomar. A naval aviation school has been established by the Divbion de Aviation, under the Secretary General of the Navy.
The material is that which was left by the Italian Mission, and includes 2 flying boats and l dirigible. The personnel numbers Lieutenant Commander Ricardo Fitz Simon is director of the school. Lieutenant Marcos A. It was planned to buy 20 planes. Commercial flying is carried on largely by private individuals or corporations with no centralized control.
The commission also planned to organize civil aviation for utilization in national defense. Richard H.
Depew is in chaise of operations. In Curtiss airplanes in the Argentine carried S passengers, flew a total of hours and covere kilometers or, roughly,miles, with but one minor laccident Twice as many students received instrttction at the Curtiss school as in all other schools combined, except the Gov- ernment stations. The Argentine Anny and Navy indude Curtiss machines in their equipment, and the Aero Club of Argentina has appointed the Curtiss school as its oflicial training station for all its students.
The Cia. The Soc. Many flights have been made over the Andes : the Chilean avia- tion, FiGueroa, having carried the mail from Chile to Argentina. Austkia A bill has been presented in the Austrian National Council by which the Federal Minister of Communications is authorized to create an Advisory Committee to give expert advice on schemes connected with alt kinds of communications, including Aerial Transport.
Although forbidden by the Peace Treaty, Hungarian pilots are trained at Szegedin. The Air Council consists of the Minister o State for Defence, who is President, a naval member, a military member, two members of the air board, one nominated by the Naval member and raie nominated by tfie Military member, and the Con- troller of Civil Aviation.
Among the functions of the Air Council are the following : To advise the Minister upon the Air Force provision necessary from time to time for the defence of Australia ; to co-ordinate the Air Force requirements of the Naval and Military Forces, respec- tively; to allocate the funds made available for air defence; to advise upon the general control of Commonwealth air policy, in its Naval and Military cts, and to co-ordinate civil aviation there- with.
The Board is chained with the control and administration of the Air Force upon the policy laid down by the Air Council. The personnel of these lines must be mem- bers of die Air Force reserve. The lines agree to carry pounds of mail matter 00 each trip. The Air Council has approved a scheme whereby aircraft material and spares may be lent from the Air Force stocks to dvil concerns.
Naval aviation is nonexistent. Military aeronautics possesses lOO airplanes of various types and 4 balloons Caquot type. The personnel consists of about loo officers and men, with about licensed pilots. There are 5 airdromes and i depot. The air service is divided into 7 groups, comprising 15 squadrons, 11 aviation and 4 airstadons. The 2 tech- nical squadrons at the Brussels airdrome have complete workshops.
The personnel is military. Theoretical research is carried on at the Aerodynamic Laboratory. Plans have been made for four new squadrons and two new air- dromes. According to the report of the Belgian Air Service, aviation is destined to develop rapidly in Belgium. The country being placed between the great commercial nations of the west of Europe, there must pass over her territory the lines from England to Germany and from France to Holland. There are four bureaus as follows: Bureau for the establishment of aerial lines organization of airdromes, equipment of lines, etc.
The S. Sociite Anonyme Beige de Constructions A6ronauttques has a capital of 5, francs.
Its factories and hangars are at Brussels. During the past jrear, it increased its capital fromfrancs to 4, francs. Four machines were destroyed, one pilot and one mechanician killed, and one pilot injured.
No passengers were hurt. The Societe Enterprises Generates d'Aeronautique is established at Gosselies, where it possesses its own airdrome.
It specializes in training. Subsidies amounting to 3, francs have been provided forfor supporting the operating lines in Belgium ; 1, francs were provided in These subsidies have enabled the companies to reduce their fares and tiiis reduction has increased traffic. At a meeting of the directors of the "Sneta" hdd in April,it was stated that the increased demand they had expe- rienced since reducing the fares confirmed the directors' opinion that the success of aerial transport depends on reasonable charges ; the poor business done in being held due to the high rates and not to any fear of risk on the part of the public.
Airdromes installed by the aeronautical administration are the property of the State. Air navigation companies or lessees of airdromes must have accredited representatives at the state airdromes which they use. These are in accord with the Internationa] Aerial Conventioo. The King is accustomed to taking "after- noon flights" about Europe and to crossing his own kingdom in an hour or two. He has also flown from Morocco to Toulouse, France. The lack of railrtads and highways, however, makes aviation desirable.
Early in the Curtisa Aeroplane Export Corporation con- tracted with the Bolivian Government for one battleplane to demon- strate the possibility of flying from the extremely high altitude around La Paz. Numerous attempts had been made to ascend from that point without success. A Curtiss "Wasp," h. One route for hydroairplanes maintained and directed by the Minister of Marine will follow the coast, while the other, under the direction of tiie Minister of War, will be inland, following the railways wherever possible.
The primary object is military defense, but the routes may be used for commerce with the Government's consent. Early in the Brazilian Government purchased from the French Aviation Mission 85 French machines at the reduced price of 2, francs.
The Army Air Service has about officers and men.