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Can not chellin lin naked that

Maggi Q vs Andrew lin naked weapon

Fr Schenck. The cover image was created by the transcriber and is placed in the public domain. In the Gaelic section, the format of the original was to put the ancient Gaelic poem on the even numbered pages, and the modern Gaelic translation on the odd numbered pages. In this e-book, the complete ancient version is displayed, followed by the modern version. Therefore the page numbering is sometimes out of order, as regards odd and even numbered pages. In the heart of the Perthshire Highlands, and not far from the northern shore of Loch Tay, there lies a secluded vale of about six miles long.

Those of Ulster were termed the Curaidhe na Craoibh Ruaidhe, or champions of the red branch, and were stationed at Eamhain or Eamania, near Ulster. To this body belonged the celebrated Cuchullin and the sons of Uisneach. Finn was slain in the yearhis grandson Oscar having fallen in the battle of Gahbra, fought in the following year. Oissin and Caoilte survived to the time of St. Patrick, whose mission to Ireland fell in the yearand related to him the exploits of the Feinne; one conversation between these aged Feinne and the apostle of Ireland having been preserved, and is termed Agallamh na seanorach or the Dialogue of the Sages.

If this is history, cadit questio. The ancient Irish militia, like their more modern representatives, could not, it is presumed, be called upon to leave their country, except in case of invasion; and poems narrating their adventures and exploits must have been as Irish as the heroes which were the subject of them.

But we cannot accept it as history in any sense of the term. It is as illusory and uncertain as are the dates of St. Patrick, and the narrative of which the one forms a part, is as little to be regarded as a veracious chronicle, as the life of the other can be accepted as a genuine biography. The chronology of the one is as questionable as the era of the other. Prior to the yearthe Irish have, strictly speaking, no chronological history. Prior to that date, we find the reigns of a long succession of monarchs recorded, with a strange mixture of minute detail, chronological exactness, and the wildest fable, a wonderful structure of history palpably artificial, and ranging over a period of upwards of years.

First, that of Partolan and his followers, who landed at Inversceine, in the west of Munster, on the 14th day of May, in the year of the world or years B. Secondly, the Nemedians, under their leader Nemedius, thirty years after, who, after remaining years in the island, left it, in consequence of the tyranny and oppression of the pirates, termed the Fomorians, in three bands,-one going to Thrace, from whom descended the Firbolg; the second to the North of Europe or Lochlan, from whom descended the Tuatha De Danann; and the third to Alban or Scotland, from whom descended the Britons.

The third colony were the Firbolg, who returned to Ireland years after the arrival of the Nemedians, and [lxvii] consisted of three tribes, the Firbolg, the Firdomnan, and the Firgailian under five leaders, by whom Ireland was divided into five provinces. With Slainge, the eldest of the five brothers, the Irish historians commence the monarchy of Ireland and the list of her kings.

The island was divided between the two brothers Eremon and Eber, the former having the north, and the latter the south half of Ireland; Ir obtaining Ulster under Eremon, and Lughadh a settlement in Munster under Eber. From the sons of Milesius to the reign of Lughadh, who was placed on the throne by the battle of Ocha, there proceeded a line of monarchs amounting to in number, and extending over a period of upwards of twenty-one centuries, the descendants of the different sons of Milesius alternating with each other from time to time, and the reign of each given with an exactness of date and minuteness of event which betrays its artificial character.

As part of this narrative is introduced the existence of these bands of Fenian militia, with the dates at which their leaders are said to have lived. Is it possible, however, to accept this extraordinary bead-roll of shadowy monarchs during Pagan times, with their exact chronology, and the strange and almost ludicrous peculiarities by which each are distinguished, as serious history, or even to attempt to discriminate between what may be true and what is false?

Are there any materials, or any data upon which we can even fix upon a date, within a reasonable compass of time, and say all before that is fable, all after may be history, till we arrive on firm ground, after the introduction of Christianity? From Slainge, the first king of the Firbolgs, who began to reign years B. If this narrative is to be submitted to historic criticism, [lxix] is the later portion less an object of such criticism than the earlier? Why the division of Ireland into the two great portions of north and south, between Conn of the hundred battles and Modha Nuadhat, in the second century, is to be accepted in preference to the original division into the same districts between Eremon and Eber, the sons of Milesius; or which of the divisions of Ireland into five provinces, that by Tuathal the acceptable, or Eochaddh, called Feidhlioch, from the deep sighs which he constantly heaved from his heart, or that by Slainge, the first king of the Firbolgs, is to be held to represent the event which produced it.

Are the conquests in Scotland by Crimthan mor, and Dathy in the fourth and fifth centuries, to be accepted, and these equally detailed battles of Aongus olmucadha and Rechtgidh righ-derg, some centuries earlier, to be rejected because they occupy a different place in this succession of unreal monarchs?

think, that

Are we to accept the reign of Conchobar Mac Nessa in the first century-to whom the death of Christ upon the cross was revealed by a Druid at the time it happened, and who became [lxx] Christian in consequence, and died from over-exertion in attacking a forest of trees with his sword which he mistook for the Jews; and the reign of Cormac Mac Art, called Ulfada, either from the length of his beard and hair, or because he drove the Uladh or Ultonians far from their country, where, however, they are ever after found notwithstanding; who was also miraculously converted to Christianity two centuries before the supposed arrival of St.

Patrick, the apostle of Ireland, and died by choking upon the bone of an enchanted fish, or, according to other accounts, was strangled by a number of infernal fiends,-as history, in preference to the reigns of scores of older monarchs, the events of whose reigns cannot be said to be less probable.

Must we hold that the chronology of Cuchullin and Corroi, of Finn Mac Cumhal and Goll Mac Morn, is fixed, because the two former are placed in the reign of Conchobar Mac Nessa, and the two latter in that of Cormac Ulfada, or that their Irish character is demonstrated because they are woven into this Milesian fable? The truth is, that notwithstanding the claims of the Irish to an early cultivation and to a knowledge of letters in Pagan times, the art of writing was unknown in Ireland till after the introduction of Christianity, and written history there was none.

apologise, but, opinion

The only materials that existed for it were poems, legends, historic tales, and pedigrees, handed down by tradition; and from these, at a subsequent period, when, as in all countries, the leisure hours of monks and ecclesiastics were employed in constructing a history of ante-Christian times, in imitation of more classical histories, a highly artificial system was by degrees constructed, embodying the substance of traditions and myths, real facts and imaginative poems, with bardic and monkish creations, and the whole based upon the classical model, by which the different ethnological elements which entered into the population of the country were cloaked under an artificial and symbolical genealogy.

But it is not chronological history. The dates are quite artificial, and the whole creation melts and resolves itself into its original elements upon investigation. The pre-Milesian colonies are found existing [lxxii] and occupying large tracts of the country down to a late period of the ante-Christian history. The provincial kings, when closely examined, lose their Milesian name, and are found ruling over Firbolgs, Firdomnan and Cruithne; and notwithstanding that the Milesians had been for years in possession of the country, and a flourishing monarchy is supposed to have existed for so long a period, we find, as late as the second century after Christ, the Attachtuatha, as the descendants of the Firbolg, Firdomnan, and Tuatha De Danann were termed during the Milesian monarchy, in full possession of the country for nearly a century, and in close alliance with the Cruithne of Ulster; during which time the Milesian kings were in exile, and the process of subjugating these tribes, supposed to be completed years before by Eremon and Eber, is again repeated by Tuathal teachtmhar, who arrives with an army from Alban.

The descendants of the different sons of Milesius likewise assume foreign characteristics. The race of Ir, son of Milesius, who possessed the whole of Ulster till the Heremonian settlements almost within the domain of history, are found calling themselves on all occasions Cruithne.

The descendants of Ith called themselves Clanna Breogan, and occupy the territory where Ptolemy, in the second century, places an offshoot of British Brigantes. Eremon and Eber seem to represent the northern and southern Scots distinguished by Bede, a distinction reproduced in Conn of the hundred battles, and Modha Nuadha. The legend of St. Patrick, too, in its present shape, is not older than the ninth century; and, under the influence of an investigation into older authorities, he dissolves into three personages; Sen-Patricius, whose day in the calendar is the 24th August; Palladius qui est Patriciusto whom the mission in properly belongs, and who is said to have retired to Alban or Scotland, where he died among the Cruithne; and Patricius, whose day is the 17th of March, and to whom alone a certain date can be assigned,-for he died, in the chronological period, in the year ,-and from the acts of these three saints the subsequent legend of the great apostle of Ireland was compiled, and an arbitrary chronology applied to it.

The Feine also, when looked at a little more closely, emerge from under the guise of a Milesian militia, and assume the features of a distinct race. Cuchullin, Conall cearnach, and the children of Uisneach belong to the race of Ir, and are Cruithne. Goll Mac Morn and his Clanna Moirne are Firbolg; Curigh Mac Daire and his Clanna Deaghadh are Ernai; and though they are called Heremonians in Irish history, yet they are also said to be a Firbolg tribe of the same race with the Clanna Morna; and in the poem of Maolmura, who died inthey are said to be of the race of Ith, and, therefore, probably Britons,-a conjecture singularly corroborated by the fact that there exists, in Welsh, a poem on the death of Curigh Mac Daire; and, finally, Finn Mac Cumhal and his Clanna Baiosgne, although a Heremonian pedigree is given to them, it is not the [lxxiv] only one known to the old Irish MSS.

what fuctioning Should

There is a second, deducing him from the Clanna Deaghaidh, the same race with that of Curigh Mac Daire; and a third, and probably the oldest, states that he was of the Ui Tairsigh, and that they were of the Attachtuatha, as the descendants of the non-Milesian tribes were called, a fact corroborated by Maolmura, who says. The fact is, when the fictitious catalogue of Milesian kings was extended over so many centuries, and the Milesian monarchy drawn back to so remote a period, it became necessary to account for the appearance of non-Milesian races in the old traditional stories, and they were either clothed with a Milesian name and pedigree, or some device hit upon to account for their separate existence; and thus the Feinne, a pre-Milesian warrior race they could not account for, appear under the somewhat clumsy guise of a standing body of Milesian militia, having peculiar privileges and strange customs.

Thus, the poem on the battle of Gabhra, published in the first volume of the Transactions of the Ossianic Society-a battle in which Oscar the son of Ossian was [lxxv] slain, and the Feinne from all quarters took part-we find the following verses:. Breatan was not Wales, but the southern districts of Scotland, of which Dunbreatan, now Dumbarton, was the chief seat.

all clear, thanks

Lochlan was the north of Germany, extending from the Rhine to the Elbe; [34] and the name of Lochlanach was originally applied to the ancient traditionary pirates termed the Fomorians. When the Norwegian and Danish pirates appeared in the ninth century, they were likewise called Lochlanach; and the name of Lochlan was transferred to Norway and Denmark, from whence they came. There is every reason to believe that the Low German race were preceded, in the more ancient Lochlan, by a Celtic people.

Now, there are just two people mentioned in the Irish records who had settlements in Ireland, and who yet were connected with Alban, Breatan, and Lochlan. These were the people termed the Tuatha De Danann, and the Cruithne. The traditionary migration of the Tuatha De Danann brings them from Lochlan, where they possessed four cities, to Alban, where they inhabited a district termed Dobhar and Jr Dobhar; and from thence they went to Erin, where they drove out the Firbolg, to be subdued in their turn by the Milesian Scots.

The Cruithne are likewise brought from Lochlan to Erin and from Erin to Alban, where they founded a kingdom, which included, till the seventh century, the Cruithne of Ulster, and which was subverted in the ninth century by the Milesian Scots.

These two tribes were thus the prior race in each country. Both must have been prior to the Low German population of Lochlan.

The Feinne are brought by all the old historic tales into close contact [lxxvii] with the Tuatha De Danann; a portion of them were avowedly Cruithne; and if they were, as we have seen, in Erin, not of the Milesian race, but of the prior population, and likewise connected with Alban, Breatan, and Lochlan, the inference is obvious, that, whether a denomination for an entire people or for a body of warriors, they belonged to the previous population which preceded the Germans in Lochlan and the Scots in Erin and Alban.

This view is corroborated by the fact, that in the old poems and tales the Feinne appear, as we have said, in close connexion with the Tuatha De Danann.

While the traditions of the Cruithne, in narrating their migration and the names of their leaders, mention, as the mythic poet of their race, a name singularly like that of Ossian. It was natural that the deeds and events connected with this warrior race, associated as they must have been with the physical features of the country in which they dwelt, should have formed the subject of the early poems and legendary tales of their successors, and that a body of popular poetry should have sprung up in each country, which occupied itself with adventures, expeditions, and feats of bravery of this previous race, which were common to both countries, and which, attributed to their mythic poets, and full of the names of heroes, and of the scenes of their exploits, would be appropriated by the bards of each country to their own districts.

The names of the places connected in tradition with these events would, as they were localized in the respective countries, [lxxix] be identified with its scenery and physical features, and thus a species of Fenian topography would spring up in each country, which, having a common origin, would bear the same character, and possess a mutual resemblance.

Each country would thus claim the Feinne as their exclusive property, and could point to a body of popular Ossianic poetry in support of their claim, and to the Fenian names of their localities, in proof of the events which form the subject of the poems having there occurred. The Roughbounds were the districts from Morvaren to Glenelg, which, with the Isles, are thus called the land of the Feinne. The districts in which the Fenian names enter most largely into the topography of the Highlands are Atholl, Lochaber, Lorn, and Morvaren, Glenelg, and the districts about Loch Ness; and the antiquity of this topography in the Highlands of Scotland is proved by an old gloss to a charter by Alexander the Second to the monks of Kinloss of the lands of Burgyn, within the ancient Celtic province of Moray, which is preserved in the Chartulary of the Bishopric.

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Cuchullin was of the race of the Cruithne, and belongs both to Ulster and to Scotland. In Ulster his seat was Dundealgan, and the scene of his exploits the district of [lxxxi] Cuailgne and the mountains of Sleave Cuillin; but even Irish tradition admits that he was reared by Sgathaig, in the Isle of Skye, and here we have Dunsgathaig and the Cuillin Hills. The children of Uisneach were likewise Cruithne, and must have preceded the Scots, for the great scene of their Scotch adventures are the districts of Lorn, Loch Aw, and Cowall, afterwards the possessions of the Dalriadic Scots; thus, in the vicinity of Oban, we have Dun mhic Uisneachan, now corruptly called in guide-books Dun mac Sniachan, a fort with vitrified remains; and here we have on Loch Etive, Glen Uisneach, and Suidhe Deardhuil.

The names of the three sons of Uisneach were Ainle, Ardan, and Naoise; and it is remarkable that Adomnan, in his life of St. Columba, written in the seventh century, appears to mention only three localities in connexion with St. Two vitrified forts in the neighbourhood of Lochness are called Dundeardhuil. Daire donn, who appears in the Cath Finntragha identified by the Irish with Ventry, has also deposited his name on a mountain in Ardgour, close to the west sea, called Meall Dayre donn.

think, that

The mountain streams and lakes in these districts of the Highlands are everywhere redolent of names connected with the heroes and actions of the Feinne, and show that a body of popular legends connected with them, whether in poetry or in prose, preserved by oral recitation or committed to writing, must have existed in the country when this topography sprung up, though it does not follow that the events, though now associated with the scenery of the country, originally happened there any more than does the Fenian topography of Ireland.

In the first and oldest form they were pure poems, of more or less excellence, narrating the adventures and deeds of these warrior bands, whose memory still lingered in the country; each poem being complete in itself, and constructed upon a metrical system which brought the aid of alliteration and of rhyme, or correspondence of sounds, to assist the memory in retaining what had been received by oral recitation, and to render it less easy to forget or lose a part.

These poems seem generally to have been attributed to one mythic poet of the race they celebrate. Then, as the language in which these poems were composed became altered or modified, or as the reciters were [lxxxiii] less able to retain the whole, they would narrate, in ordinary prose, the events of the part of the poem they had forgotten, and merely recite the poetry of what they recollected; and thus they would pass into the second stage of prose tales, interspersed with fragments of poetry.

Bards who were themselves composers as well as reciters, besides composing poems on the subjects of the day in which they lived, would likewise select the Fenian legends as their themes, and become imitators of the older Ossianic poetry. The prose narrative would form the basis of their poem; and thus would arise the third stage of their poems, in which they were reconstructed from the prose tales, and again appear as long poems, the names and incidents being the same as in the older poems, and the fragments of them preserved in the prose tale, imbedded in the new poem.

The poems of the first stage were probably common to Ireland and to Scotland, and traces of them are to be found wherever the Feinne were supposed to have once existed; though, in countries where their successors were of a different race, and spoke a different language, the continuity of the tradition would be at once broken.

consider, what

Among the ancient poems in the Welsh language which have been preserved, there exists an Ossianic poem called Marwnad Coire map Daire, or the death-song of Curoi, son of Daire, the traditionary head, according to Irish history, of the Fenian militia of Munster, but who, as we have seen, appears to belong to the body called the Feinne of Breatan; and the poem, no doubt, belongs to the [lxxxiv] northern Cumbrian kingdom, which had Dunbreatan for its chief seat.

Curoi is called Chief of the Southern Sea, and the contest between him and Cuchullin is mentioned. The oldest which has been found in any MSS. It is in old Gaelic, and there is an interlineal gloss, explaining the meaning of the expressions in more familiar language.

At the end there is a line stating that Ossian was the author of the poem. Ossian sung this at the shore of the sea of Tallann, for the champion of the sow. The latter is one of three tales, called the Three Woes, the two others relating to families of the Tuatha De Danann; but though these tales may be Irish, and of this period, they contain fragments of poems probably much older, and which may have been derived from another source.

One of the poems in the tale of the Children of Uisneach contains such a tender recollection of and touching allusion to Highland scenery, that it is hardly possible to suppose that it was not originally composed by a genuine son of Alban. The third class of Ossianic poems belongs principally to that period when, during the sway of the Lords of the Isles, Irish influence was so much felt on the language and literature of the Highlands, and when the Highland bards and sennachies were trained in bardic schools, presided over by Irish bards of eminence.

It was at this period mainly that the Irish poems assumed so much the shape of a dialogue between the Ossianic poets and St. It was at the same period that the collection of Gaelic poems was made by the Dean of Lismore, and it includes many poems in which this dialogue occurs, but in most the saint is termed Macalpine, showing its non-Irish source.

The Ossianic poems in this collection attributed to Ossian, Fergus Filidh, and Caoilte, the three Fenian bards, and those which are either anonymous or composed by imitators, as Gillecalum Mac an Olla and Allan Mac Ruadhri, with the other poems which are not Ossianic, afford a fair specimen of the poetic literature current in the Highlands of Scotland at the close of this period, and before the fall of the Lords of the Isles, and the Reformation again severed that country from Ireland, [xc] and ushered in a period of reaction and return towards the native dialect and literature.

On the whole, then, we fully admit the claims of Ireland to Fenian legends and tales, and their attendant poems, but not to an exclusive possession of them. We admit its claim to an early written and cultivated speech, but not to the only dialect of Gaelic in which such poems once existed. We hold that Scotland possesses likewise Fenian legends and Ossianic poetry derived from an independent source, and a Fenian topography equally genuine; and we consider her dialect of the common Gaelic tongue not undeserving of the attention of philologers.

John son of Patrick, son of Malcom, son of John the black, son of John, son of Gregor, son of John, son of Malcom, son of Duncan the little, son of Duncan from Srulee, son of Gilelan, son of Hugh of Urchy, son of Kenneth, son of Alpin; and this Kenneth was head king of Scotland, in truth, at that time; and this John is the eleventh man from Kenneth, of whom I spoke. The following fragment is continued from pages 12 and 13 of the Gaelic, where the first twenty-two lines of the composition will be found.

Having been misplaced in the MS. Cosmo Innes, with a view to a correct account being given of its contents. After a considerable time spent on deciphering the difficult handwriting, and resolving the strange and irregular orthography, he gave a fuller account of it than had been given before, in a paper read before the Society of Scottish Antiquaries.

He was aware that a transcript of the MS. In Decemberthe publishers proposed to the writer that he should undertake transcribing and translating the MS. Skene undertaking to write a historical introduction, with additional notes.

There was good reason for reluctance in undertaking such a work. There was immense difficulty in the task itself, consisting very much in an exercise of ingenuity, the results to be tested by comparison, in guessing the meaning of words phonetically spelled; there was the labour of writing the same thing in three different forms; and there was in all this large demands upon time otherwise engrossed by the duties of a profession, whose calls the keeping of a good conscience, and duty to a Divine Master, would not admit of being neglected or postponed.

The work itself, however, was very congenial, as contributing somewhat to the literature of the Celtic countrymen of the writer, the literature of a period, too, of which few other literary remains of theirs exist.

He therefore undertook to devote his spare hours for a season to the work, which is now laid before the public. The difficulties did not become less than was anticipated when they came to be practically dealt with. There was first the transcription of the original. A facsimile specimen of the writing is given in this volume, from which some idea may be formed of its character.

The handwriting is the current English hand of the fifteenth century, with a few additional peculiarities borrowed from the Gaelic writing of the same period, as practised both in Scotland and Ireland.

Chellin lin naked

As is common in the writing of the period, the same sign is used both for c and t. The MS. The work, however, was not beyond the threshold when the transcription was complete. There were three peculiar difficulties to be encountered here,-first, the frequent occurrence of obsolete words,-words not to be found in any dictionary of the Scottish Gaelic,-and the meaning of which could only be learned from some acquaintance with the ancient MS.

Many of these pieces will not read as poetry at all, unless read in accordance with the Irish method of accentuation. It was known to all acquainted with early Gaelic literature, how much there was that was common to the literature of Scotland and Ireland. There is nothing more interesting than the weight given in the allusions in these poems to the existence and influence of the Bardic schools at the period, and the large prizes usually conferred by the wealthy on successful poets.

The translation into English was, upon the whole, a less arduous process than the previous one. It might have been otherwise had the attempt been made to translate into English poetry. This, however, has been carefully avoided. The rendering has been made so literal as that the meaning of every sentence in Gaelic is conveyed in English, so far as the editor has been able to do it; and the translation is merely somewhat lightened, and the reading made more agreeable, by having the baldness of mere literality removed, and the lines made somewhat smooth and flowing.

In some cases the spelling and handwriting together have so obscured the words, that the editor has been quite unable to give anything like a satisfactory rendering; hence there will be found, in a very few instances, what are apparently different words in the original and modern version. The editor has only to say regarding these and any other cases of doubtful rendering, which in such a work must be numerous, that he will be happy to receive through the publishers any suggestions from Gaelic scholars which may help to secure greater accuracy.

It is only necessary to say farther, that in extending the modern Gaelic version of these poems, it was perfectly impossible to exclude all the older forms of the language.

In many places to do so would have been to destroy the whole poetical structure of the composition. It was perfectly impossible, with anything like justice to these compositions, to bring them into exact conformity with the rules of modern Scottish Gaelic. It also contains every composition having reference to Scotland, with the exception of five; two of these being so much defaced, and so many of the words obscured by time and exposure, that it is impossible to give anything like an accurate version of them.

The other three are eulogies on the clan Gregor chiefs, so much of a piece with those already given, that they would not contribute to the literary value of the work. A few specimens, such as the laments of Gormlay, wife of Nial Glundubh, and daughter of Flann Sionna, Queen of Ireland, have been transcribed as specimens, which may be not uninteresting either to the Scottish or Irish reader. The Irish compositions are, with few exceptions, of a religious character.

In a note at p. It is now given, but without a translation, which is not thought necessary. He likewise attacks Stewart for not producing ancient MSS. The will of any single man is powerless to alter the minutest particle in the language; and the fact that the inflected present tense is not used in Scotch Gaelic, is evident to any one acquainted with the language, or who has come in contact with those who speak it.

That the same peculiarities existed in the language in the last century, is proved by the fact that the Gaelic colonists in Canada, who have been separated from the mother country since that period, speak a form of Scotch Gaelic precisely similar to that now spoken in the Highlands, and possessing all those dialectic peculiarities which distinguish it from Irish.

Although the present tense of the verb is usually expressed by the auxiliary, the Highlanders also use the future tense to express the present. The leading differences between Irish and Scotch Gaelic may be stated generally as follows The initial consonants are not affected to the same extent as in Irish and Welsh; and in pure Scotch Gaelic the eclipsis is unknown, except in the case of the letter S.

The following table will show their relative position in this respect In Irish, words beginning with A may take the digamma Fas aillfailla rock; atafataa plain; iolairfiolairan eagle, etc.

The digamma never appears in Scotch Gaelic. The vowel at the end of nouns in Irish, is dropped in Scotch Gaelic; as, tighernaIr.

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In the consonants the older form is often retained in Scotch Gaelic; thus, the initial S in Irish, is often D in Scotch Gaelic, which is the older form, as suilIr. S is sometimes changed to Pas siutharIr.

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The accentuation in Scotch Gaelic in dissyllables is on the first syllable; in Irish, on the last. The nominative plural frequently ends like Welsh and Manx in an ; as, Slatanrods; Maitheanchiefs.

The Irish present is used as the future, and there is no present tense. There is a considerable difference in the vocabulary words being now used in Irish, which are unknown in Scotch Gaelic, and vice versaand a comparison of the lists of idiomatic phrases in Irish or Scotch Gaelic shows a very great difference in the mode of expressing familiar phrases. The text is, however, very corrupt. It has been translated by Mr. The poem is in reality an Ossianic poem referring to the death of Curoi, son of Daire, by Cuchullin, the celebrated Fenian hero of Ulster.

When Curigh was informed that the heroes were setting out on this expedition, he transformed himself by magic into a disguised shape, and joined the party; but when they were on the point of plundering the island, disguised like jugglers, they judged that there would be great difficulty in taking the fortress in the island, in which were secured Blanaid and the valuable treasures of the whole island, on account of its strength and the number of men who defended it.

Then Curigh, who was attired in a coarse grey habit, engaged, if he were to get his choice of the treasures, that he would himself take possession of the fort.

are not

Cuchullin promises this, and immediately they attacked the castle with the man in the grey habit at their head, who stopped the motion of an enchanted wheel that was placed at the castle gate, and let in all the troops, by whom the fortress was sacked, and Blanaid and all the treasure borne away.

They then set out for Ireland, and arrived at Evan; and on dividing the treasure, the man in the grey habit demands his choice of the jewels, as was promised to him. When Cuchullin perceived that the lady was missing, he suspected that it was Curigh that stole her off, and pursued them directly to Munster, and overtook them at Sulchoid. The champions engage, and a brave and well-fought contest ensues; but at length Cuchullin was overcome by Curigh, who tied him neck and heels, and left him shackled like a captive, after cutting off his hair with his sword, and then carried away Blanaid into the west of Munster.

On his return from the west, he found Blanaid in solitude near the Finglass, in Kerry, where Curigh had a palace at that time. A conversation ensued between them, in which she declared to him that there was not on the face of the earth a man she loved more, and entreated him to come near Allhallow tide with an armed band, and carry her off with him by force; and that he might the more easily accomplish his design, she would take care that Curigh should, at that time, have but few soldiers or attendants.

Cuchullin promises to come to her at the appointed time, and then takes his leave, and sets out for Ulster, and relates the adventure to Choncubar. Full-texts 2. Other full-text sources. Content available from Alvin CH Ma:. Content available from CC BY 2. Content uploaded by Alvin CH Ma. Available via license: CC BY 2. Bio Med Central.

The role of survivin in angiogen esis during zebrafish embryonic. Stem Cell Institute, University of. Email: Alvin CH M a - h hkusua. Joseph CK Leung - jckleung hku. Catherine M Verfaillie - verfa umn. Background: Survivin is the smallest member of the inhibitor of apoptosi s IAP gene family. Recently, the zebrafish survivin-1 gene has been cloned, showing remarkable sequence identity and.

Here we. Morpholinos MOs. Vasculature was. The phenotyp es could be recapitulated by splice-site MO. Injection of. Conclusio n: Survivin is involved in. Survivin is the smallest member of the inhibitor of apop. Survivin is not expressed in. BMC Developmental Biology7 doi However, homozygous.

As a result, the role. Recently, the zebrafish survivin-1 gene abbreviated sur. Microarray anal. Here, we investigated if. Expression of survivin in zebrafish embryos. Whole-mount in-situ hybri dization was performed to. Survivin was de tected diffusely throughout the. It was also expressed at. This was f urther. Furthermore, double. The pattern was remarkably. The role of survivin dur ing embryonic development was. The phenotypic penetrance of survivin MOs was dose- and.

At 22 hpf, wh en injected with either 3 ng. However, at 48 hpf, There was no overt tissue necro. At 6 ng of either MOs, increasing. Co-injecting Sur. The combination regime n remained significantly.

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In all subsequen t. Effects of survivin knoc k-down on angiogenesis. We have previously shown that survivin is significantly up.

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ICM was expanded [7]. Therefore, we first examined the. In uninjected embr yos, the axial. However, the development of. These defects were seen in all The results.

Similar patterns of angiogenesis. As a member of the IAP family, survivin has bee n shown. Therefore; we investigated if there was increased apoptos is. The increased.

Abstract and Figures

MO binding to survivin mRNA, embryos were co-injected. Injecting the plasmid alone. A splice site. Figure 4e-f. Angiogenesis defects were seen in ISV as. A rel. Effects of survivin knock-down on embryonic development Figure 2. Effects of survivin knock-down on embryonic development.

Noted that while there was no significant mo rphological. Similar phenotypes were. Insert d showed a severe. Each picture is. Optimal response was o bserved when embryos. In each experiment, MOs.

More than Whole-mount in-situ hybridizat ion sh owing the expression of survivin in zebrafish embryos Figure 1. Whole-mount in-situ hybridizat ion sh owing the expression. Similar expression patterns were seen at 56 hpf not shown. Pictu res are representative of at. In the Sur. PCR confirmed defective splic ing of part of the intron, as. MO has not been examined. Finally, defective sprouting. VEGF plays an important role in angiogen esis during.

In-vitro studies. Therefore; we investigated if survivin expression during. Exogenous huma n. VEGF protein 2 ng was inj ected into zebrafish embryos. Angiogen esis was examined in the. We also. Survivin mRNA. In this study, we demonstrated that kn ock-down of sur.

Similar p henotypic. The survivin morph ants had defective angiogenesis but. Development delay in. Our results corrobo rate with in-vitro.

In addition, our data provided new information. In-vitro and tumorigenesis studies h ave shown that sur. In zebrafish embryos, VEGF signaling is important for. In particular, mutants defective in a. Effects of survivin knock-do wn on angiogenesis and circulation Figure 3. Effects of survivin knock- down on angiogenesis and circula. Noted the aberra nt sprouting of the inter-seg. Axial circulation.

Noted that the dorsal aor ta and posterior. N: Notochord; AC: Axial circulation. TUNEL assay in embryos injected with random sequence.

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Embryos were ex amined at 48 hpf except c. More than 20 embryos. MO targeting of. VEGF results in defective circu lation in the head, axial and. In this study, VEGF induces ectopic angiogenesis and. Intriguingly, co-injecting embryos with survivin mRNA. VEGF receptor inhibitor.

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Therefore, additional down. Rever sely, whether VEGF can rescue. Perturbation o f VEGF signaling may also. This issue would have to be. Both human and murine studies have demon strated that. However, in the present. Tg gata1:GFP embryos at 18 hpf, before the onset of. That the targeting of the survivin M Os was specific was. First, the phenotypic. Indeed, it would. Second, co-injecting S ur. Third, the angiogenesis defect s. Finally a splice-site mor.

In human, murine [4] as well as Xenopus embryos [20]. These ob servations. Effect o f survivin knock -down was gene-specif ic Figure 4. Effect o f survivin knock -down was gene-specif ic. All embryos were orie nted anterior left to. Howe ver, in zebrafish embryos, sur. Th is obser. We cannot. First, we have confined. S econd, we. Finally, i n the present study, survivin. Our findings were also consistent with those by. Pasquier et al.

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